Us BundeГџtaat Washington

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Us BundeГџtaat Washington

Der Staat wurde nach dem ersten US-Präsidenten, George Washington, benannt und als Staat im Jahr in die Vereinigten Staaten aufgenommen.

Us BundeГџtaat Washington

Der Staat wurde nach dem ersten US-Präsidenten, George Washington, benannt und als Staat im Jahr in die Vereinigten Staaten aufgenommen.

Us BundeГџtaat Washington

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The term " Pineapple Express " is used colloquially to describe atmospheric river events, where repeated storm systems are directed by this persistent cyclone from tropical and near-tropical Pacific regions into the Pacific Northwest.

Despite western Washington's having a marine climate similar to many coastal cities of Europe, there are exceptions such as the "Big Snow" events of , , , and , and the "deep freeze" winters of —, —, —, and —, among others.

During these events, western Washington experienced up to 6 feet 1. The Southern Oscillation greatly influences weather during the cold season.

In , the Climate Impacts Group at the University of Washington published The Impacts of Climate change in Washington's Economy , a preliminary assessment on the risks and opportunities presented given the possibility of a rise in global temperatures and their effects on Washington state.

Rainfall in Washington varies dramatically going from east to west. Weeks may pass without a clear day. The western slopes of the Cascade Range receive some of the heaviest annual snowfall in some places more than inches or 5, millimeters water equivalent in the country.

Precipitation then increases again eastward toward the Rocky Mountains. The Olympic mountains and Cascades compound this climatic pattern by causing orographic lift of the air masses blown inland from the Pacific Ocean, resulting in the windward side of the mountains receiving high levels of precipitation and the leeward side receiving low levels.

This occurs most dramatically around the Olympic Mountains and the Cascade Range. In both cases the windward slopes facing southwest receive high precipitation and mild, cool temperatures.

While the Puget Sound lowlands are known for clouds and rain in the winter, the western slopes of the Cascades receive larger amounts of precipitation, often falling as snow at higher elevations.

Mount Baker , near the state's northern border, is one of the snowiest places in the world. East of the Cascades, a large region experiences strong rain shadow effects.

Semi-arid conditions occur in much of eastern Washington with the strongest rain shadow effects at the relatively low elevations of the central Columbia Plateau —especially the region just east of the Columbia River from about the Snake River to the Okanagan Highland.

Thus, instead of rain forests, much of eastern Washington is covered with grassland and shrub-steppe.

Both records were set east of the Cascades. Western Washington is known for its mild climate, considerable fog, frequent cloud cover, long-lasting drizzles in the winter and warm, temperate summers.

The Eastern region occasionally experiences extreme climate. Arctic cold fronts in the winter and heat waves in the summer are not uncommon.

Forests cover about half the state's land area, mostly west of the North Cascades. Approximately two-thirds of Washington's forested area is publicly owned, including 64 percent of federal land.

The Pacific shore surrounding the San Juan Islands are heavily inhabited with killer , gray, and humpback whales. Mammals native to the state include the bat , black bear , bobcat , cougar , coyote , deer , elk , gray wolf , moose , mountain beaver , muskrat , opossum , pocket gopher , raccoon , river otter , skunk , and tree squirrel.

This range includes raptors, shorebirds, woodland birds, grassland birds, ducks, and others. There are five species of salmon that ascend the Western Washington area, from streams to spawn.

Washington has a variety of National Park Service units. Almost 95 percent , acres, , hectares, 3, The skeletal remains of Kennewick Man , one of the oldest and most complete human remains found in North America, were discovered in Washington.

Prominent among their industries were salmon fishing and, notably among the Makah , whale hunting. The peoples of the Interior had a very different subsistence-based culture based on hunting, food-gathering and some forms of agriculture, as well as a dependency on salmon from the Columbia and its tributaries.

The smallpox epidemic of the s devastated the Native American population. The first recorded European landing on the Washington coast was by Spanish Captain Don Bruno de Heceta in , on board the Santiago , part of a two-ship flotilla with the Sonora.

He claimed the coastal lands up to Prince William Sound for Spain as part of their claimed rights under the Treaty of Tordesillas , which they maintained made the Pacific a "Spanish lake" and all its shores part of the Spanish Empire.

It was not discovered until Charles William Barkley , captain of the Imperial Eagle , sighted it in The straits were further explored by Spanish explorers Manuel Quimper in and Francisco de Eliza in , and British explorer George Vancouver in The British-Spanish Nootka Convention of ended Spanish claims of exclusivity and opened the Northwest Coast to explorers and traders from other nations, most notably Britain and Russia as well as the fledgling United States.

He named the river after his ship, the Columbia. Beginning in , Gray established trade in sea otter pelts.

The Lewis and Clark Expedition entered the state on October 10, Explorer David Thompson , on his voyage down the Columbia River, camped at the confluence with the Snake River on July 9, , and erected a pole and a notice claiming the country for Great Britain and stating the intention of the North West Company to build a trading post at the site.

Britain and the United States agreed to what has since been described as "joint occupancy" of lands west of the Continental Divide to the Pacific Ocean as part of the Anglo-American Convention of , which established the 49th Parallel as the international boundary west from Lake of the Woods to the Rocky Mountains.

Resolution of the territorial and treaty issues, west to the Pacific, was deferred until a later time. Spain, in , ceded their rights north of the 42nd Parallel to the United States, although these rights did not include possession.

Negotiations with Great Britain over the next few decades failed to settle upon a compromise boundary and the Oregon boundary dispute was highly contested between Britain and the United States.

Disputed joint-occupancy by Britain and the U. With American settlers pouring into Oregon Country , Hudson's Bay Company , which had previously discouraged settlement because it conflicted with the fur trade, reversed its position in an attempt to maintain British control of the Columbia District.

Despite such efforts, Britain eventually ceded all claims to land south of the 49th parallel to the United States in the Oregon Treaty on June 15, In , a group of missionaries, including Marcus Whitman , established several missions and Whitman's own settlement Waiilatpu, in what is now southeastern Washington state, near present day Walla Walla County , in territory of both the Cayuse and the Nez Perce Indian tribes.

Whitman's settlement would in help the Oregon Trail , the overland emigration route to the west, get established for thousands of emigrants in the following decades.

Marcus provided medical care for the Native Americans, but when Indian patients—lacking immunity to new, "European" diseases—died in striking numbers, while at the same time many white patients recovered, they held "medicine man" Marcus Whitman personally responsible, and murdered Whitman and twelve other white settlers in the Whitman massacre in This event triggered the Cayuse War between settlers and Indians.

Fort Nisqually , a farm and trading post of the Hudson's Bay Company and the first European settlement in the Puget Sound area, was founded in They settled in Washington to avoid Oregon's Black Exclusion Law , which prohibited African Americans from entering the territory while simultaneously prohibiting slavery.

The growing populace of Oregon Territory north of the Columbia River formally requested a new territory. As a result of the Monticello Convention , held in present-day Cowlitz County , Congress passed legislation and President Millard Fillmore signed into law on March 2, , the creation of a new Washington Territory.

The creation of Idaho Territory in established the final eastern border. A Washington State constitution was drafted and ratified in , but it was never officially adopted.

It was used extensively during the drafting of Washington State's constitution, the one and only official Constitution of the State of Washington.

Washington became the 42nd state in the United States on November 11, Early prominent industries in the state included agriculture and lumber.

In eastern Washington, the Yakima River Valley became known for its apple orchards, while the growth of wheat using dry farming techniques became particularly productive.

Heavy rainfall to the west of the Cascade Range produced dense forests, and the ports along Puget Sound prospered from the manufacturing and shipping of lumber products, particularly the Douglas fir.

Other industries that developed in the state included fishing, salmon canning and mining. For a long period, Tacoma had large smelters where gold, silver, copper, and lead ores were treated.

Seattle was the primary port for trade with Alaska and the rest of the country, and for a time, it possessed a large shipbuilding industry.

During the Great Depression , a series of hydroelectric dams were constructed along the Columbia river as part of a project to increase the production of electricity.

This culminated in with the completion of the Grand Coulee Dam , the largest concrete structure in the United States.

During World War II, the state became a focus for war industries. While the Boeing Company produced many of the nation's heavy bombers , ports in Seattle, Bremerton , Vancouver , and Tacoma were available for the manufacture of warships.

Seattle was the point of departure for many soldiers in the Pacific, a number of whom were quartered at Golden Gardens Park.

In eastern Washington, the Hanford Works atomic energy plant was opened in , and played a major role in the construction of the nation's atomic bombs.

On May 18, , following a period of heavy tremors and eruptions, the northeast face of Mount St. Helens erupted violently , destroying a large part of the top of the volcano.

The eruption flattened the forests, killed 57 people, flooded the Columbia River and its tributaries with ash and mud, and blanketed large parts of Washington eastward and other surrounding states in ash, making day look like night.

As of the Census, the population of Washington was 6,, The center of population of Washington in was in an unpopulated part of the Cascade Mountains in rural eastern King County , southeast of North Bend , northeast of Enumclaw , and west of Snoqualmie Pass.

Washington's proportion of residents under age five was 6. According to the American Community Survey , In , Note: Births in table don't add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.

While the population of African Americans in the Pacific Northwest is scarce overall, they are mostly concentrated in the South End and Central District areas of Seattle, and in inner Tacoma.

The westernmost and Pacific coasts have primarily American Indian communities, such as the Chinook , Lummi , and Salish.

Urban Indian communities formed by the U. The city was named for Chief Seattle in the very early s when European Americans settled the sound.

Seattle, Bellevue , and Redmond , which are all within King County, have sizable Chinese communities including Taiwanese , as well as significant Indian and Japanese communities.

The Chinatown-International District in Seattle has a historical Chinese population dating back to the s, who mainly emigrated from Guangdong Province in southern China, and is home to a diverse East and Southeast Asian community.

Koreans are heavily concentrated in the suburban cities of Federal Way and Auburn to the south, and in Lynnwood to the north.

Tacoma is home to thousands of Cambodians , and has one of the largest Cambodian-American communities in the United States, along with Long Beach, California , and Lowell, Massachusetts.

They were reported to at least date as far back as the s. Additionally, Washington has a large Ethiopian community, with many Eritrean residents as well.

In total, Major religious affiliations of the people of Washington are: [98]. Aquarian Tabernacle Church is the largest Wiccan church in the country.

Like other West Coast states, the percentage of Washington's population identifying themselves as " non-religious " is higher than the national average.

The percentage of non-religious people in Washington is one of the highest in the United States. Significant business within the state include the design and manufacture of aircraft Boeing , automotive Paccar , computer software development Microsoft , Bungie , Amazon , Nintendo of America , Valve , ArenaNet , telecom T-Mobile US , electronics , biotechnology , aluminum production, lumber and wood products Weyerhaeuser , mining, beverages Starbucks , Jones Soda , real estate John L.

Also, significant amounts of trade with Asia pass through the ports of the Puget Sound, leading to a number six ranking of U.

The state of Washington is one of seven states that do not levy a personal income tax. The state does not collect a corporate income tax or franchise tax either.

Washington's state base sales tax is 6. The combined state and local retail sales tax rates increase the taxes paid by consumers, depending on the variable local sales tax rates, generally between 7.

However, prepared foods, dietary supplements , and soft drinks remain taxable. An excise tax applies to certain products such as gasoline, cigarettes, and alcoholic beverages.

It continues to be the most important revenue source for public schools , fire protection, libraries , parks and recreation, and other special purpose districts.

All real property and personal property are subject to tax, unless specifically exempted by law.

Most personal property owned by individuals is exempt from tax. Personal property tax applies to personal property used when conducting business, or to other personal property not exempt by law.

All property taxes are paid to the county treasurer's office where the property is located. Washington does not impose a tax on intangible assets such as bank accounts , stocks , or bonds.

Neither does the state assess any tax on retirement income earned and received from another state. Washington does not collect inheritance taxes.

However, the estate tax is de-coupled from the federal estate tax laws, and therefore, the state imposes its own estate tax.

Washington state has the 18th highest per capita effective tax rate in the United States , as of This leads to border economic anomalies in the Portland-Vancouver metropolitan area.

Washington is a leading agricultural state. In , Washington ranked first in the nation in production of red raspberries Washington also ranked second in the nation in production of fall potatoes a quarter of the nation's production , nectarines , apricots , grapes all varieties taken together , sweet corn for processing a quarter of the nation's production , and summer onions a fifth of the nation's production.

The apple industry is of particular importance to Washington. Because of the favorable climate of dry, warm summers and cold winters of central Washington, the state has led the U.

Washington ranks second in the United States in the production of wine, behind only California. Viticulture in the state is also influenced by long sunlight hours on average, two more hours a day than in California during the growing season and consistent temperatures.

Washington has a system of state highways , called State Routes , as well as an extensive ferry system which is the largest in the nation [] and the third largest in the world.

There are public airfields in Washington , including 16 state airports owned by the Washington State Department of Transportation.

There are extensive waterways around Washington's largest cities, including Seattle, Bellevue , Tacoma and Olympia.

The state highways incorporate an extensive network of bridges and the largest ferry system in the United States to serve transportation needs in the Puget Sound area.

Washington's marine highway constitutes a fleet of twenty-eight ferries that navigate Puget Sound and its inland waterways to 20 different ports of call, completing close to , sailings each year.

Washington is home to four of the five longest floating bridges in the world: the Evergreen Point Floating Bridge , Lacey V.

Murrow Memorial Bridge and Homer M. Among its most famous bridges is the Tacoma Narrows Bridge , which collapsed in and was rebuilt.

The Cascade Mountain Range also impedes transportation. Washington operates and maintains roads over seven [ vague ] major mountain passes and eight minor passes.

During winter months some of these passes are plowed, sanded, and kept safe with avalanche control. Not all stay open through the winter.

The Cayuse and Chinook passes east of Mount Rainier also close in winter. Washington is crossed by a number of freight railroads , and Amtrak's passenger Cascade route between Eugene, Oregon and Vancouver, BC is the eighth busiest Amtrak service in the U.

The Sounder commuter rail service operates in Seattle and its surrounding cities, between Everett and Lakewood. The entire system has a funded expansion plan that will expand light rail to a total of miles by Seattle also has a 3.

Hanford Nuclear Reservation is currently the most contaminated nuclear site in the United States [] and is the focus of the nation's largest environmental cleanup.

In , Washington became the first state in the nation to target all forms of highly toxic brominated flame retardants known as PBDEs for elimination from the many common household products in which they are used.

Three recent studies by the Washington State Department of Ecology showed toxic chemicals banned decades ago linger in the environment and concentrate in the food chain.

In one of the studies, state government scientists found unacceptable levels of toxic substances in 93 samples of freshwater fish from 45 sites.

As a result of the study, the department will investigate the sources of PCBs in the Wenatchee River, where unhealthy levels of PCBs were found in mountain whitefish.

Based on the information and a previous Ecology study, the Washington State Department of Health advises the public not to eat mountain whitefish from the Wenatchee River from Leavenworth downstream to where the river joins the Columbia, due to unhealthy levels of PCBs.

Study results also showed high levels of contaminants in fish tissue that scientists collected from Lake Washington and the Spokane River, where fish consumption advisories are already in effect.

This bill would limit phosphorus content in dishwashing detergents statewide to 0. Though the ban would be effective statewide in , it would take place in Whatcom County , Spokane County , and Clark County in An invasive amount of algae in bodies of water would lead to a variety of excess ecological and technological issues.

Washington's executive branch is headed by a governor elected for a four-year term. The current statewide elected officers are:.

The bicameral Washington State Legislature is the state's legislative branch. The state legislature is composed of a lower House of Representatives and an upper State Senate.

The state is divided into 49 legislative districts of equal population, each of which elects two representatives and one senator.

Representatives serve two-year terms, whilst senators serve for four years. There are no term limits. After the election, the Democratic Party solidified their majority in the House and Senate.

The Washington Supreme Court is the highest court in the state. Nine justices serve on the bench and are elected statewide.

Murray has represented the state since , while Cantwell was first elected in The state is one of six with two female senators.

Due to Congressional redistricting as a result of the Census , Washington gained one seat in the United States House of Representatives.

With the extra seat, Washington also gained one electoral vote, raising its total to The state is typically thought of as politically divided by the Cascade Mountains, with Western Washington being liberal particularly the I-5 Corridor and Eastern Washington being conservative.

Washington has voted for the Democratic presidential nominee in every election since Due to Western Washington's large population, Democrats usually fare better statewide.

The Seattle metropolitan combined statistical area , home to almost two-thirds of Washington's population, generally delivers stronger Democratic margins than most other parts of Western Washington.

This is especially true of King County, home to Seattle and almost a third of the state's population. Washington was considered a key swing state in , and it was the only western state to give its electoral votes to Democratic nominee Hubert Humphrey over his Republican opponent Richard Nixon.

Washington was considered a part of the Republican Revolution , and had the biggest pick-up in the house for Republicans, who picked up seven of Washington's nine House seats.

The governorship is held by Democrat Jay Inslee , who was elected to his first term in the gubernatorial election.

The state senate was under Republican control, due to two Democrats' joining Republicans to form a Majority Coalition Caucus.

After the elections, the Democrats retained control of the House, while Republicans took a majority in the Senate without the need for a coalition.

In November , a special election gave Democrats a one seat majority in the Senate and complete control over state government.

Since then, in the election, the Democrats have only expanded their majorities. No state has gone longer without a Republican governor than Washington state.

Democrats have controlled the Washington Governor's Mansion for more than 34 years. The last Republican Governor was John Spellman , who held the office between and Washington has not voted for a Republican senator, governor, or presidential candidate since , tying Delaware for the longest streak in the country.

Washington is one of three states to have legalized assisted suicide. In , voted on by initiative, the Washington Death with Dignity Act passed and became law.

In November , Washington state voters approved full domestic partnerships via Referendum 71 , marking the first time voters in any state expanded recognition of same-sex relationships at the ballot box.

Three years later, in November , same-sex marriage was affirmed via Referendum 74 , making Washington one of only three states to have approved same-sex marriage by popular vote.

Also in November , Washington state became one of just two states to pass by initiative the legal sale and possession of cannabis for both medical and non-medical use with Initiative The law took effect in December Although marijuana is still illegal under U.

Federal law, persons 21 and older in Washington state can possess up to one ounce of marijuana, 16 ounces of marijuana-infused product in solid form, 72 ounces of marijuana-infused product in liquid form, or any combination of all three, and to legally consume marijuana and marijuana-infused products.

In November , voters approved Initiative , which among other things requires employers to guarantee paid sick leave to most workers.

On January 1, , the law went into effect, with Washington becoming the seventh state with paid sick leave requirements.

Washington state was the first state in the United States where assisted suicide, same-sex marriage , and recreational cannabis use were all legal at the same time.

After the elections, it was joined by Oregon. With the passage of Initiative in the elections, Washington adopted stricter gun laws.

Washington enacted a measure in May in favor of sanctuary cities , similar to California and Oregon laws which are among the strongest statewide mandates in the nation.

As of the — school year, 1,, students were enrolled in elementary and secondary schools in Washington, with 59, teachers employed to educate them.

High school juniors and seniors in Washington have the option of using the state's Running Start program.

Begun by the state legislature in , it allows students to attend institutions of higher education at public expense, simultaneously earning high school and college credit.

There are more than 40 institutions of higher education in Washington. The state has major research universities, technical schools, religious schools, and private career colleges.

The top two health insurers as of were Premera Blue Cross , with 24 percent market share, followed by Kaiser Permanente at 21 percent. The state of Washington reformed its health care system in through the Washington Health Services Act.

The legislation required individuals to obtain health insurance or face penalties, and required employers to provide insurance to employees.

In addition, health insurance companies were required to sell policies to all individuals, regardless of pre-existing conditions, and cover basic benefits.

Hospitals exist across the state, but with a particular focus at the medical facilities of Seattle. Joseph Medical Center.

In addition, the U. Previous ships had held that name in honor of George Washington. Conover of Seattle, Washington. The name proved popular as the forests were full of evergreen trees and the abundance of rain keeps the shrubbery and grasses green throughout the year.

The state song is " Washington, My Home ", the state bird is the American goldfinch , the state fruit is the apple, and the state vegetable is the Walla Walla sweet onion.

The state tree is the western hemlock. The state flower is the coast rhododendron. The state fish is the steelhead.

The unofficial, but popularly accepted, state rock song is Louie Louie. The state insect is the green darner dragonfly. The state gem is petrified wood.

The state fossil is the Columbian mammoth. The state marine mammal is the orca. The state land mammal is the Olympic marmot.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Washington and Washington State. State in the northwestern United States.

State in the United States. Al-ki or Alki, "bye and bye" in Chinook Jargon. Mount Rainier. See also: Geology of the Pacific Northwest.

Mount Baker. Glacier Peak. Mount St. Mount Adams. See also: Climate change in Washington. Main article: Rain shadow. Retrieved July 27, Source 2: "Comparative Data for the Western States".

See also: List of flora of Washington state , List of fauna of Washington state , and List of federal lands in Washington state.

Main article: History of Washington state. Main articles: Oregon Country and Columbia District. Main article: Oregon pioneer history.

Main article: eruption of Mount St. See also: List of cities in Washington. Largest cities or towns in Washington state Washington Source: [95].

Religion in Washington as of [update] [97] Religion Percent Protestant. Main article: Economy of Washington state.

See also: Mountain recreation economy of Washington , List of Washington locations by per capita income , and List of Washington state companies.

Main article: Washington wine. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. December This section needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

Washington passenger rail stations. Cascades to Vancouver, British Columbia. Empire Builder to Chicago.

Point Defiance bypass. Coast Starlight to Los Angeles. Main article: Government of the State of Washington.

See also: United States congressional delegations from Washington. See also: Political party strength in Washington state. Education in Washington.

School districts Educational service districts Rural school districts. Colleges and universities Student Achievement Council.

See also: Washington Healthplanfinder and List of hospitals in Washington state. Main article: List of Washington state symbols.

United States portal. Washington State Legislature. Archived from the original on July 10, Retrieved July 11, United States Census Bureau.

March 20, Retrieved March 20, Seattle Times. February 27, Retrieved May 28, USA Today. Archived from the original on November 7, Retrieved November 9, January Pacific Northwest Quarterly.

City of Longview, WA. Archived from the original on March 6, Retrieved April 17, Washington History—Territorial Timeline.

Washington Secretary of State. Archived from the original on June 19, Retrieved February 26, February 15, Archived PDF from the original on February 15, Retrieved April 4, Archived from the original on April 7, Retrieved April 7, That's our name".

The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on April 8, They can have it". Archived from the original on July 24, Archived from the original on September 13, Retrieved September 4, Geological Survey.

April 29, Archived from the original on November 9, December 17, Archived from the original on April 19, McClatchy Newspapers.

Archived from the original on July 25, Retrieved September 13, February 3, Archived from the original on February 4, Retrieved February 4, Western Regional Climate Center.

Archived from the original on January 13, Retrieved September 22, Washington State Place Names.

University of Washington Press. October 6, Archived from the original on October 9, Retrieved October 10, Archived from the original on March 8, Retrieved January 26, Golden Gate Weather Services.

Archived from the original on October 1, Retrieved October 14, Archived from the original on July 30, Retrieved July 31, August 2, Archived from the original on January 7, Archived from the original on July 22, Archived from the original on May 18, Retrieved September 21, Spokane Area monthly summarized data for mean maximum, mean average, and mean minimum temperature.

Archived from the original on September 21, Washington Forest Protection Association. Archived from the original on April 18, Retrieved July 14, University of Washington Herbarium.

Archived from the original on August 20, Retrieved July 15, Nördlich des Zusammenflusses mit dem Clearwater River wurde die Grenze als derjenige Meridian definiert, der von diesem Zusammenfluss von Snake und Clearwater aus nach Norden verläuft.

Längengrad , sondern liegt etwa drei Kilometer weiter westlich. Washington ist geprägt durch den scharfen Kontrast zwischen Berg- und Küstenregion im Westen und den trockenen Gebieten im Osten des Staates.

Östlich des Kaskadengebirges liegen die Halbwüsten des Landes, die gänzlich ohne nennenswerte Vegetation sind.

Sämtliche Flüsse Washingtons entwässern in den Pazifischen Ozean. Er entspringt in der kanadischen Nachbarprovinz British Columbia.

Der Columbia ist der einzige Fluss, der die Kaskadenkette durchbricht. National Scenic Area erklärt. Einige kleinere Flüsse entwässern den Westen des Bundesstaates.

Der Columbia und seine Nebenflüsse eignen sich zur Gewinnung von Wasserkraft. Die bis zu Meter hohe Kaskadenkette ist der prägende Gebirgszug Washingtons.

Er ist vulkanischen Ursprungs und durchzieht den Staat von Nord nach Süd. Schon bei den Ureinwohnern führten die unterschiedlichen Umgebungen in Verbindung mit der räumlichen Trennung durch den Gebirgszug zu einer Ausprägung von sehr unterschiedlichen Lebensstilen Binnen-Salish und Küsten-Salish.

Heute wird das Gebirge beispielsweise noch im Zusammenhang mit Wahlen als eine Art Trennlinie gesehen; während im Westen traditionell die Demokraten favorisiert werden, haben östlich der Kaskadenkette Politiker der Republikanischen Partei bessere Chancen.

Auch die nächsthöheren Berge gelten alle noch als aktive Vulkane. Helens und Mount Adams. Helens trotz Einrichtung einer Sicherheitszone 57 Menschen starben.

Der Ausbruch hatte sich bereits zwei Monate zuvor angekündigt und zählt heute zu den besterforschten Eruptionen überhaupt.

Helens National Volcanic Monument unter Schutz gestellt. Zusammen mit den weiter südlich gelegenen Willapa Hills zählen die Olympic Mountains zu den Gebirgskette der Küstengebirge an der nordamerikanischen Pazifikküste.

Abgesehen von Hawaii gilt das Gebiet als das regenreichste der Vereinigten Staaten. Demgegenüber erreichen die Willapa Hills wesentlich geringere Höhen.

Der Bundesstaat Washington hat 6. Stelle befindet. Es gibt 2. Das Medianalter beträgt 36,8 Jahre. Dies war der höchste Wert aller Bundesstaaten.

Hawaii ab. Stand [9]. In Seattle , dem wirtschaftlichen und kulturellen Zentrum des Bundesstaates, leben Zur Metropolregion Seattle zählen mit Tacoma Südlich der Metropolregion Seattle liegt die Hauptstadt Olympia Staat der Union bei.

Der Gouverneur von Washington regiert vier Jahre. Neben einem Senat mit 49 Sitzen besteht ein Repräsentantenhaus mit 98 Sitzen.

Politisch ist Washington zweigeteilt: Westlich der Kaskadenkette, besonders in und um Seattle, sind die Demokraten dominant.

Im ländlichen Osten um Spokane dominieren dagegen die Republikaner. Mehr noch als Oregon ist Washington inzwischen in der Addition den Demokraten zugetan und kann kaum noch als Swing State gelten.

He named the river after his ship, the Columbia. Beginning in , Gray established trade in sea otter pelts. The Lewis and Clark Expedition entered the state on October 10, Explorer David Thompson , on his voyage down the Columbia River, camped at the confluence with the Snake River on July 9, , and erected a pole and a notice claiming the country for Great Britain and stating the intention of the North West Company to build a trading post at the site.

Britain and the United States agreed to what has since been described as "joint occupancy" of lands west of the Continental Divide to the Pacific Ocean as part of the Anglo-American Convention of , which established the 49th Parallel as the international boundary west from Lake of the Woods to the Rocky Mountains.

Resolution of the territorial and treaty issues, west to the Pacific, was deferred until a later time. Spain, in , ceded their rights north of the 42nd Parallel to the United States, although these rights did not include possession.

Negotiations with Great Britain over the next few decades failed to settle upon a compromise boundary and the Oregon boundary dispute was highly contested between Britain and the United States.

Disputed joint-occupancy by Britain and the U. With American settlers pouring into Oregon Country , Hudson's Bay Company , which had previously discouraged settlement because it conflicted with the fur trade, reversed its position in an attempt to maintain British control of the Columbia District.

Despite such efforts, Britain eventually ceded all claims to land south of the 49th parallel to the United States in the Oregon Treaty on June 15, In , a group of missionaries, including Marcus Whitman , established several missions and Whitman's own settlement Waiilatpu, in what is now southeastern Washington state, near present day Walla Walla County , in territory of both the Cayuse and the Nez Perce Indian tribes.

Whitman's settlement would in help the Oregon Trail , the overland emigration route to the west, get established for thousands of emigrants in the following decades.

Marcus provided medical care for the Native Americans, but when Indian patients—lacking immunity to new, "European" diseases—died in striking numbers, while at the same time many white patients recovered, they held "medicine man" Marcus Whitman personally responsible, and murdered Whitman and twelve other white settlers in the Whitman massacre in This event triggered the Cayuse War between settlers and Indians.

Fort Nisqually , a farm and trading post of the Hudson's Bay Company and the first European settlement in the Puget Sound area, was founded in They settled in Washington to avoid Oregon's Black Exclusion Law , which prohibited African Americans from entering the territory while simultaneously prohibiting slavery.

The growing populace of Oregon Territory north of the Columbia River formally requested a new territory. As a result of the Monticello Convention , held in present-day Cowlitz County , Congress passed legislation and President Millard Fillmore signed into law on March 2, , the creation of a new Washington Territory.

The creation of Idaho Territory in established the final eastern border. A Washington State constitution was drafted and ratified in , but it was never officially adopted.

It was used extensively during the drafting of Washington State's constitution, the one and only official Constitution of the State of Washington.

Washington became the 42nd state in the United States on November 11, Early prominent industries in the state included agriculture and lumber.

In eastern Washington, the Yakima River Valley became known for its apple orchards, while the growth of wheat using dry farming techniques became particularly productive.

Heavy rainfall to the west of the Cascade Range produced dense forests, and the ports along Puget Sound prospered from the manufacturing and shipping of lumber products, particularly the Douglas fir.

Other industries that developed in the state included fishing, salmon canning and mining. For a long period, Tacoma had large smelters where gold, silver, copper, and lead ores were treated.

Seattle was the primary port for trade with Alaska and the rest of the country, and for a time, it possessed a large shipbuilding industry.

During the Great Depression , a series of hydroelectric dams were constructed along the Columbia river as part of a project to increase the production of electricity.

This culminated in with the completion of the Grand Coulee Dam , the largest concrete structure in the United States.

During World War II, the state became a focus for war industries. While the Boeing Company produced many of the nation's heavy bombers , ports in Seattle, Bremerton , Vancouver , and Tacoma were available for the manufacture of warships.

Seattle was the point of departure for many soldiers in the Pacific, a number of whom were quartered at Golden Gardens Park.

In eastern Washington, the Hanford Works atomic energy plant was opened in , and played a major role in the construction of the nation's atomic bombs.

On May 18, , following a period of heavy tremors and eruptions, the northeast face of Mount St. Helens erupted violently , destroying a large part of the top of the volcano.

The eruption flattened the forests, killed 57 people, flooded the Columbia River and its tributaries with ash and mud, and blanketed large parts of Washington eastward and other surrounding states in ash, making day look like night.

As of the Census, the population of Washington was 6,, The center of population of Washington in was in an unpopulated part of the Cascade Mountains in rural eastern King County , southeast of North Bend , northeast of Enumclaw , and west of Snoqualmie Pass.

Washington's proportion of residents under age five was 6. According to the American Community Survey , In , Note: Births in table don't add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.

While the population of African Americans in the Pacific Northwest is scarce overall, they are mostly concentrated in the South End and Central District areas of Seattle, and in inner Tacoma.

The westernmost and Pacific coasts have primarily American Indian communities, such as the Chinook , Lummi , and Salish. Urban Indian communities formed by the U.

The city was named for Chief Seattle in the very early s when European Americans settled the sound.

Seattle, Bellevue , and Redmond , which are all within King County, have sizable Chinese communities including Taiwanese , as well as significant Indian and Japanese communities.

The Chinatown-International District in Seattle has a historical Chinese population dating back to the s, who mainly emigrated from Guangdong Province in southern China, and is home to a diverse East and Southeast Asian community.

Koreans are heavily concentrated in the suburban cities of Federal Way and Auburn to the south, and in Lynnwood to the north.

Tacoma is home to thousands of Cambodians , and has one of the largest Cambodian-American communities in the United States, along with Long Beach, California , and Lowell, Massachusetts.

They were reported to at least date as far back as the s. Additionally, Washington has a large Ethiopian community, with many Eritrean residents as well.

In total, Major religious affiliations of the people of Washington are: [98]. Aquarian Tabernacle Church is the largest Wiccan church in the country.

Like other West Coast states, the percentage of Washington's population identifying themselves as " non-religious " is higher than the national average.

The percentage of non-religious people in Washington is one of the highest in the United States. Significant business within the state include the design and manufacture of aircraft Boeing , automotive Paccar , computer software development Microsoft , Bungie , Amazon , Nintendo of America , Valve , ArenaNet , telecom T-Mobile US , electronics , biotechnology , aluminum production, lumber and wood products Weyerhaeuser , mining, beverages Starbucks , Jones Soda , real estate John L.

Also, significant amounts of trade with Asia pass through the ports of the Puget Sound, leading to a number six ranking of U.

The state of Washington is one of seven states that do not levy a personal income tax. The state does not collect a corporate income tax or franchise tax either.

Washington's state base sales tax is 6. The combined state and local retail sales tax rates increase the taxes paid by consumers, depending on the variable local sales tax rates, generally between 7.

However, prepared foods, dietary supplements , and soft drinks remain taxable. An excise tax applies to certain products such as gasoline, cigarettes, and alcoholic beverages.

It continues to be the most important revenue source for public schools , fire protection, libraries , parks and recreation, and other special purpose districts.

All real property and personal property are subject to tax, unless specifically exempted by law. Most personal property owned by individuals is exempt from tax.

Personal property tax applies to personal property used when conducting business, or to other personal property not exempt by law.

All property taxes are paid to the county treasurer's office where the property is located. Washington does not impose a tax on intangible assets such as bank accounts , stocks , or bonds.

Neither does the state assess any tax on retirement income earned and received from another state. Washington does not collect inheritance taxes.

However, the estate tax is de-coupled from the federal estate tax laws, and therefore, the state imposes its own estate tax. Washington state has the 18th highest per capita effective tax rate in the United States , as of This leads to border economic anomalies in the Portland-Vancouver metropolitan area.

Washington is a leading agricultural state. In , Washington ranked first in the nation in production of red raspberries Washington also ranked second in the nation in production of fall potatoes a quarter of the nation's production , nectarines , apricots , grapes all varieties taken together , sweet corn for processing a quarter of the nation's production , and summer onions a fifth of the nation's production.

The apple industry is of particular importance to Washington. Because of the favorable climate of dry, warm summers and cold winters of central Washington, the state has led the U.

Washington ranks second in the United States in the production of wine, behind only California.

Viticulture in the state is also influenced by long sunlight hours on average, two more hours a day than in California during the growing season and consistent temperatures.

Washington has a system of state highways , called State Routes , as well as an extensive ferry system which is the largest in the nation [] and the third largest in the world.

There are public airfields in Washington , including 16 state airports owned by the Washington State Department of Transportation.

There are extensive waterways around Washington's largest cities, including Seattle, Bellevue , Tacoma and Olympia. The state highways incorporate an extensive network of bridges and the largest ferry system in the United States to serve transportation needs in the Puget Sound area.

Washington's marine highway constitutes a fleet of twenty-eight ferries that navigate Puget Sound and its inland waterways to 20 different ports of call, completing close to , sailings each year.

Washington is home to four of the five longest floating bridges in the world: the Evergreen Point Floating Bridge , Lacey V. Murrow Memorial Bridge and Homer M.

Among its most famous bridges is the Tacoma Narrows Bridge , which collapsed in and was rebuilt. The Cascade Mountain Range also impedes transportation.

Washington operates and maintains roads over seven [ vague ] major mountain passes and eight minor passes.

During winter months some of these passes are plowed, sanded, and kept safe with avalanche control. Not all stay open through the winter.

The Cayuse and Chinook passes east of Mount Rainier also close in winter. Washington is crossed by a number of freight railroads , and Amtrak's passenger Cascade route between Eugene, Oregon and Vancouver, BC is the eighth busiest Amtrak service in the U.

The Sounder commuter rail service operates in Seattle and its surrounding cities, between Everett and Lakewood. The entire system has a funded expansion plan that will expand light rail to a total of miles by Seattle also has a 3.

Hanford Nuclear Reservation is currently the most contaminated nuclear site in the United States [] and is the focus of the nation's largest environmental cleanup.

In , Washington became the first state in the nation to target all forms of highly toxic brominated flame retardants known as PBDEs for elimination from the many common household products in which they are used.

Three recent studies by the Washington State Department of Ecology showed toxic chemicals banned decades ago linger in the environment and concentrate in the food chain.

In one of the studies, state government scientists found unacceptable levels of toxic substances in 93 samples of freshwater fish from 45 sites.

As a result of the study, the department will investigate the sources of PCBs in the Wenatchee River, where unhealthy levels of PCBs were found in mountain whitefish.

Based on the information and a previous Ecology study, the Washington State Department of Health advises the public not to eat mountain whitefish from the Wenatchee River from Leavenworth downstream to where the river joins the Columbia, due to unhealthy levels of PCBs.

Study results also showed high levels of contaminants in fish tissue that scientists collected from Lake Washington and the Spokane River, where fish consumption advisories are already in effect.

This bill would limit phosphorus content in dishwashing detergents statewide to 0. Though the ban would be effective statewide in , it would take place in Whatcom County , Spokane County , and Clark County in An invasive amount of algae in bodies of water would lead to a variety of excess ecological and technological issues.

Washington's executive branch is headed by a governor elected for a four-year term. The current statewide elected officers are:.

The bicameral Washington State Legislature is the state's legislative branch. The state legislature is composed of a lower House of Representatives and an upper State Senate.

The state is divided into 49 legislative districts of equal population, each of which elects two representatives and one senator.

Representatives serve two-year terms, whilst senators serve for four years. There are no term limits. After the election, the Democratic Party solidified their majority in the House and Senate.

The Washington Supreme Court is the highest court in the state. Nine justices serve on the bench and are elected statewide. Murray has represented the state since , while Cantwell was first elected in The state is one of six with two female senators.

Due to Congressional redistricting as a result of the Census , Washington gained one seat in the United States House of Representatives.

With the extra seat, Washington also gained one electoral vote, raising its total to The state is typically thought of as politically divided by the Cascade Mountains, with Western Washington being liberal particularly the I-5 Corridor and Eastern Washington being conservative.

Washington has voted for the Democratic presidential nominee in every election since Due to Western Washington's large population, Democrats usually fare better statewide.

The Seattle metropolitan combined statistical area , home to almost two-thirds of Washington's population, generally delivers stronger Democratic margins than most other parts of Western Washington.

This is especially true of King County, home to Seattle and almost a third of the state's population. Washington was considered a key swing state in , and it was the only western state to give its electoral votes to Democratic nominee Hubert Humphrey over his Republican opponent Richard Nixon.

Washington was considered a part of the Republican Revolution , and had the biggest pick-up in the house for Republicans, who picked up seven of Washington's nine House seats.

The governorship is held by Democrat Jay Inslee , who was elected to his first term in the gubernatorial election.

The state senate was under Republican control, due to two Democrats' joining Republicans to form a Majority Coalition Caucus.

After the elections, the Democrats retained control of the House, while Republicans took a majority in the Senate without the need for a coalition.

In November , a special election gave Democrats a one seat majority in the Senate and complete control over state government.

Since then, in the election, the Democrats have only expanded their majorities. No state has gone longer without a Republican governor than Washington state.

Democrats have controlled the Washington Governor's Mansion for more than 34 years. The last Republican Governor was John Spellman , who held the office between and Washington has not voted for a Republican senator, governor, or presidential candidate since , tying Delaware for the longest streak in the country.

Washington is one of three states to have legalized assisted suicide. In , voted on by initiative, the Washington Death with Dignity Act passed and became law.

In November , Washington state voters approved full domestic partnerships via Referendum 71 , marking the first time voters in any state expanded recognition of same-sex relationships at the ballot box.

Three years later, in November , same-sex marriage was affirmed via Referendum 74 , making Washington one of only three states to have approved same-sex marriage by popular vote.

Also in November , Washington state became one of just two states to pass by initiative the legal sale and possession of cannabis for both medical and non-medical use with Initiative The law took effect in December Although marijuana is still illegal under U.

Federal law, persons 21 and older in Washington state can possess up to one ounce of marijuana, 16 ounces of marijuana-infused product in solid form, 72 ounces of marijuana-infused product in liquid form, or any combination of all three, and to legally consume marijuana and marijuana-infused products.

In November , voters approved Initiative , which among other things requires employers to guarantee paid sick leave to most workers.

On January 1, , the law went into effect, with Washington becoming the seventh state with paid sick leave requirements. Washington state was the first state in the United States where assisted suicide, same-sex marriage , and recreational cannabis use were all legal at the same time.

After the elections, it was joined by Oregon. With the passage of Initiative in the elections, Washington adopted stricter gun laws.

Washington enacted a measure in May in favor of sanctuary cities , similar to California and Oregon laws which are among the strongest statewide mandates in the nation.

As of the — school year, 1,, students were enrolled in elementary and secondary schools in Washington, with 59, teachers employed to educate them.

High school juniors and seniors in Washington have the option of using the state's Running Start program. Begun by the state legislature in , it allows students to attend institutions of higher education at public expense, simultaneously earning high school and college credit.

There are more than 40 institutions of higher education in Washington. The state has major research universities, technical schools, religious schools, and private career colleges.

The top two health insurers as of were Premera Blue Cross , with 24 percent market share, followed by Kaiser Permanente at 21 percent.

The state of Washington reformed its health care system in through the Washington Health Services Act.

The legislation required individuals to obtain health insurance or face penalties, and required employers to provide insurance to employees.

In addition, health insurance companies were required to sell policies to all individuals, regardless of pre-existing conditions, and cover basic benefits.

Hospitals exist across the state, but with a particular focus at the medical facilities of Seattle. Joseph Medical Center.

In addition, the U. Previous ships had held that name in honor of George Washington. Conover of Seattle, Washington.

The name proved popular as the forests were full of evergreen trees and the abundance of rain keeps the shrubbery and grasses green throughout the year.

The state song is " Washington, My Home ", the state bird is the American goldfinch , the state fruit is the apple, and the state vegetable is the Walla Walla sweet onion.

The state tree is the western hemlock. The state flower is the coast rhododendron. The state fish is the steelhead. The unofficial, but popularly accepted, state rock song is Louie Louie.

The state insect is the green darner dragonfly. The state gem is petrified wood. The state fossil is the Columbian mammoth.

The state marine mammal is the orca. The state land mammal is the Olympic marmot. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For other uses, see Washington and Washington State. State in the northwestern United States. State in the United States. Al-ki or Alki, "bye and bye" in Chinook Jargon.

Mount Rainier. See also: Geology of the Pacific Northwest. Mount Baker. Glacier Peak. Mount St. Mount Adams. See also: Climate change in Washington.

Main article: Rain shadow. Retrieved July 27, Source 2: "Comparative Data for the Western States". See also: List of flora of Washington state , List of fauna of Washington state , and List of federal lands in Washington state.

Main article: History of Washington state. Main articles: Oregon Country and Columbia District. Main article: Oregon pioneer history.

Main article: eruption of Mount St. See also: List of cities in Washington. Largest cities or towns in Washington state Washington Source: [95].

Religion in Washington as of [update] [97] Religion Percent Protestant. Main article: Economy of Washington state. See also: Mountain recreation economy of Washington , List of Washington locations by per capita income , and List of Washington state companies.

Main article: Washington wine. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it.

December This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Washington passenger rail stations. Cascades to Vancouver, British Columbia.

Empire Builder to Chicago. Point Defiance bypass. Coast Starlight to Los Angeles. Main article: Government of the State of Washington.

See also: United States congressional delegations from Washington. See also: Political party strength in Washington state.

Education in Washington. School districts Educational service districts Rural school districts. Colleges and universities Student Achievement Council.

See also: Washington Healthplanfinder and List of hospitals in Washington state. Main article: List of Washington state symbols.

United States portal. Washington State Legislature. Archived from the original on July 10, Retrieved July 11, United States Census Bureau.

March 20, Retrieved March 20, Seattle Times. February 27, Retrieved May 28, USA Today. Archived from the original on November 7, Retrieved November 9, January Pacific Northwest Quarterly.

City of Longview, WA. Archived from the original on March 6, Retrieved April 17, Washington History—Territorial Timeline.

Washington Secretary of State. Archived from the original on June 19, Retrieved February 26, February 15, Archived PDF from the original on February 15, Retrieved April 4, Archived from the original on April 7, Retrieved April 7, That's our name".

The Seattle Times. Archived from the original on April 8, They can have it". Archived from the original on July 24, Archived from the original on September 13, Retrieved September 4, Geological Survey.

April 29, Archived from the original on November 9, December 17, Archived from the original on April 19, McClatchy Newspapers. Archived from the original on July 25, Retrieved September 13, February 3, Archived from the original on February 4, Retrieved February 4, Western Regional Climate Center.

Archived from the original on January 13, Retrieved September 22, Washington State Place Names. University of Washington Press.

October 6, Archived from the original on October 9, Retrieved October 10, Archived from the original on March 8, Retrieved January 26, Golden Gate Weather Services.

Archived from the original on October 1, Retrieved October 14, Archived from the original on July 30, Retrieved July 31, August 2, Archived from the original on January 7, Archived from the original on July 22, Archived from the original on May 18, Retrieved September 21, Spokane Area monthly summarized data for mean maximum, mean average, and mean minimum temperature.

Archived from the original on September 21, Washington Forest Protection Association. Archived from the original on April 18, Retrieved July 14, University of Washington Herbarium.

Archived from the original on August 20, Retrieved July 15, Archived from the original on July 16, Archived from the original on July 8, Seattle Audubon Society.

Archived from the original on April 22, University of Nebraska—Lincoln. April 27, Archived from the original on December 13, Archived from the original on June 24, Inland Fishes of Washington 2nd ed.

Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife. Archived from the original on July 27, June 1, Archived from the original on April 9, National Park Service.

Archived from the original on September 22, Archived from the original on December 3, Washington State Park System.

United States Forest Service. January 1, Archived from the original on July 1, Science Daily.

Middle Tennessee State University. April 26, Retrieved April 18, Archived from the original on May 26, City of Tumwater, WA.

Archived from the original on July 14, Retrieved June 15, July 1, The Pacific Northwest Quarterly.

Columbia—The Magazine of Northwest History. Archived PDF from the original on June 29, Retrieved September 9, Archived from the original on June 22, Retrieved November 10, Archived from the original on August 21, Retrieved January 8, Helens National Volcanic Monument".

Dies war der höchste Wert aller Bundesstaaten. Hawaii ab. Stand [9]. In Seattle , dem wirtschaftlichen und kulturellen Zentrum des Bundesstaates, leben Zur Metropolregion Seattle zählen mit Tacoma Südlich der Metropolregion Seattle liegt die Hauptstadt Olympia Staat der Union bei.

Der Gouverneur von Washington regiert vier Jahre. Neben einem Senat mit 49 Sitzen besteht ein Repräsentantenhaus mit 98 Sitzen. Politisch ist Washington zweigeteilt: Westlich der Kaskadenkette, besonders in und um Seattle, sind die Demokraten dominant.

Im ländlichen Osten um Spokane dominieren dagegen die Republikaner. Mehr noch als Oregon ist Washington inzwischen in der Addition den Demokraten zugetan und kann kaum noch als Swing State gelten.

Kongresses sind die Demokraten mit sieben und die Republikaner mit drei Abgeordneten vertreten. Seit stellen die Demokraten durchgängig den Gouverneur des Bundesstaates.

Im Februar setzte er für seine Amtszeit — die Todesstrafe aus. Washington ist in 39 Countys untergliedert. Das Siegel wurde von dem Juwelier Charles Talcott entworfen.

In Washington gibt es drei Nationalparks. Der Nationalpark ist nahezu unerschlossen, als Hochgebirge Schutzgebiet für alpine Flora und Fauna und wird nur von wenigen Bergsteigern und -wanderern besucht, pro Jahr etwa Washington unterhält State Parks Stand: November [13].

Weitere Hochschulen sind in der Liste der Universitäten in Washington verzeichnet. Washington gehört zu den wohlhabendsten Bundesstaaten der USA.

Bedeutendster Wirtschaftszweig ist die Luft- und Raumfahrtindustrie. Ein weiteres bedeutendes Unternehmen aus Seattle ist die Kaffeehauskette Starbucks.

Bundesdistrikt: Washington, D. Washington Details Details. Siehe auch : Liste der Countys in Washington. Siehe auch : Liste der State Parks in Washington.

Online einsehbar unter Archivlink Memento vom Abgerufen am Presidential Elections. November August amerikanisches Englisch.

Januar Dezember englisch. Countys im US-Bundesstaat Washington. Namensräume Artikel Diskussion. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte.

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